Fertilizer is essential for crops to absorb nutrients during the cultivation of our crops. It is also the main source of crop growth nutrients. Urea is an important part of it. Urea is the most commonly used quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer. In general, urea utilization is only 30% to 40%. That is to say, 50 kilograms of urea is applied to the soil, and only 15 to 20 kilograms can be absorbed and utilized by the crop. So, how can we improve the fertilizer efficiency of urea?
1. Apply soil.
The final product of urea decomposition in the soil is ammonium carbonate. However, ammonium carbonate is very unstable. Ammonium carbonate decomposes in the soil or on the soil surface to form free ammonia, which is volatile and volatile. Therefore, urea is best applied deep in soil. Practice has proved that after applying urea to the surface at room temperature for 4 to 5 days, most of the nitrogen will be ammonia volatilized. Its utilization rate is only about 30%. Especially on the surface of calcareous and alkaline soils, the loss of ammonia volatilization is more serious. Therefore, when using urea as a top dressing, it is better to apply a ditch deeper than 10 cm to make the urea in the moist soil, which is beneficial to the conversion of urea. It is also beneficial for the ammonia fertilizer to be adsorbed by the soil to reduce the loss of volatilization.
Urea is a low molecular organic compound. There is an ammoniation process after urea is applied to the soil. When it is converted to a very volatile ammonium carbonate, it can be absorbed by the crop roots. Therefore, the application of urea to the crop should be applied about 7 days earlier than other nitrogen fertilizers.
3. Apply later.
Urea has good moisture absorption performance. The dry land topdressing should be as much as possible after the rain so that the fertilizer dissolves quickly and is adsorbed by the soil. At the same time, some fertilizer can be absorbed through the leaves to improve fertilizer efficiency and reduce losses.
4. Mix and use.
Urea can not be mixed with alkaline fertilizers such as grass ash, calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, kiln ash potassium fertilizer to prevent reducing fertilizer efficiency. However, when urea is mixed with fertilizers such as potassium chloride, phosphate rock and superphosphate, the yield increase effect is remarkable.
5. Don't pour water immediately after the application.
After urea is applied to the soil, it cannot be adsorbed by the soil before it is decomposed and converted. If you fill the water immediately after chasing, it will cause a large loss of urea. If the soil is seriously dehydrated, non-irrigation is not enough, and it is necessary to do the small water irrigation, and avoid flooding. When topdressing rice, it should take into account the characteristics of urea with greater fluidity before conversion. After the application, it is not possible to immediately irrigate the water. Generally, it is better to pour small water 3 to 5 days after the chase.
6. Top dressing, avoiding seed fertilizer.
High concentrations of urea destroy the structure of the protein and degrade the protein to affect seed germination and seedling root growth. In severe cases, the seed will lose its ability togerminate. Therefore, avoid farming. Urea is an amide fertilizer, which is organic, neutral, and contains no by-products. It has little damage to crop stems and leaves. The urea molecule is small in volume and easily penetrates into the cell through the cell membrane; urea itself is hygroscopic and easily absorbed by the leaves. Therefore, urea as a root dressing is better than other nitrogen fertilizers. The concentration of urea root spray varies with crop type. The concentration of top dressing of gramineous crops is 1.5% to 2%. The concentration for the top dressing of the dicotyledonous crops is 1%. The concentration in the flowering period of the crop should be smaller. The time for urea spraying is preferably after 4 pm. At this time, the amount of transpiration is small, and the leaf pores gradually open. The diluted urea solution can be basically absorbed overnight, which greatly improves the utilization rate of urea.
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