Urease is also known as urease, and its system is named ureaa amidohydrolase. It is a type of enzyme protein produced by microorganisms. Its relative molecular weight is 12 000 ~ 13 000. It is widely found in soil, legumes, and animal digestive tracts. The activity is highest when the pH is 6.0 to 8.0. The deactivation temperature was 70 °C. Urease breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide when water is present. Urease can also react with a few derivatives of urea (hydroxyurea and dihydroxyurea) with a strong specificity.
Mechanism of action of urease inhibitors
The source of ammonia in animals is multifaceted. This can be divided into two main categories. One type is endogenous ammonia nitrogen, mainly urinary nitrogen and fecal nitrogen. They are ammonia produced during protein metabolism and are normal physiological metabolites, generally less. It will soon be synthesized into urea in the liver and excreted through the kidneys. The other type is exogenous ammonia nitrogen, such as ammonia produced by NPN such as urea added to feed. The decomposition rate of urea in ruminants is very fast, and a large amount of ammonia can not be utilized by rumen microorganisms, thereby greatly reducing the utilization of nitrogen by animals and causing ammonia poisoning. Urease inhibitors can reduce the production of exogenous ammonia such as urea by inhibiting the urease activity of the intestine, thereby achieving the purpose of controlling the excessive concentration of ammonia in animals, and it is also an effective way to control air pollution in livestock and poultry farms. There are different types of urease inhibitors, and their mechanism of action on urease is also different. It is roughly divided into two ways: First, urease inhibitors change the urease structure and inactivate the urease. These inhibitors include heavy metal salts and Paraformaldehyde; the second is the urease inhibitor combined with the active center of urease to inactivate it, so as to control the release of ammonia gas, such substances include ectopic acid compounds and yucca extract saponin. For example, the inhibition of rumen urease by AHA is non-competitive inhibition. Its internal molecule is a hydroxylamine structure. Its active hydrogen and hydroxyl groups combine with the sulfhydryl group in the urea structure near the metal nickel to oxidize the sulfhydryl group into a disulfide bridge (- SS-) reduces the activity of urease. However, this inhibition is reversible, which ensures that urea is hydrolyzed by urease in the rumen, and ammonia is slowly released to meet the nitrogen requirement of rumen microbial proliferation.
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