Amino acids are compounds in which the hydrogen atoms of a carboxylic acid carbon are replaced by the amino group. The amino acid molecule contains two functional groups, an amino group and a carboxyl group which is similar to hydroxy acids. Amino acids can be divided into α-, β-, γ-...w-amino acids according to different positions of the amino group attached to the carbon chain. However, the amino acids obtained after proteolysis are all α-amino acids, and there are twenty kinds, which are the basic unit of protein.
Amino acids are the basic substances that make up the protein needed for animal nutrition. It is an organic compound containing a basic amino group and an acidic carboxyl group.The amino group attached to the α-carbon is an α-amino acid. The amino acids constituting the protein are mostly α-amino acids.
Amino acids can exert the following effects through metabolism in the human body
synthesizeing tissue proteins;
becoming an acid, hormone, antibody, creatine and other ammonia-containing substances;
converting into carbohydrates and fats;
oxidizing to carbon dioxide and water and urea and producing energy.
Amino acids are mainly used in medicine for the preparation of compound amino acid infusions, as well as therapeutic drugs and the synthesis of polypeptide drugs.There are more than one hundred kinds of amino acids used as drugs, including 20 kinds of amino acids constituting proteins and more than 100 kinds of amino acids constituting non-proteins.
Compound preparations with a variety of amino acids play a very important role in modern venous infusion and "factor diet" therapy. It has played an active role in maintaining the nutrition of critically ill patients and rescuing patients' lives, and has become one of the indispensable medical varieties in modern medical treatment.
Amino acids such as glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, and L-dopa can treat some diseases such as liver diseases, digestive diseases, encephalopathy, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases. Morever it is helpful for improving muscle vitality, pediatric nutrition and detoxification. In addition, amino acid derivatives have emerged in the treatment of cancer.
As Engels said: "Protein is the material basis of life, and life is a form of protein existence." If the human body lacks of protein, the light condition is physical decline, stunting, weakened resistance, anemia, and the serious condition is the formation of edema and even life-threatening. Once you lose your protein, life will not exist. Therefore, some people call protein "the carrier of life." It can be said that it is the first element of life.
The basic unit of protein is an amino acid. If the human body lacks of any essential amino acids, it can cause abnormal physiological functions, affect the normal metabolism of the body, and finally lead to disease. Even the lack of certain non-essential amino acids can cause metabolic disorders in the body. Arginine and citrulline are important for the formation of urea. Insufficient intake of cystine causes the decline of insulin and the increase of the blood sugar. For e the need for cystine and arginine after trauma is lack, even if the heat is sufficient, the protein cannot be synthesized smoothly.