(1) Specificity. This compound should specifically inhibit the oxidation of NH4+ to NO2. It is to inhibit the activity of nitrite microorganism involved in the oxidation process and do no harm to biochemical processes of the oxidation of NO2- to NO3- in the soil. Cyanate, iodate and chlorate inhibit the oxidation of NO2- to NO3- by inhibiting the activity of nitrobacillus and cytochrome c- system. Although it can also be called a nitrification inhibitor
, but from the perspective of ecological environment, can not be listed as an ideal category of inhibitors.
(2) Mobility. The moving speed of the compound in the soil should be close to that of the fertilizer or nutrient solution, especially the relative moving speed of NH4+. It is distributed uniformly in the soil together with nitrogen fertilizer. Compounds with higher vapor pressure or higher water solubility move faster in the soil, which not only can easily cause separation of NH4+ in the soil profile and affect its nitrification inhibition effect, but also can easily cause potential pollution to soil and water.
(3) Persistence. The inhibitory effect of the inhibitor is highly correlated with its retention and stability in soil. Once the inhibitor is degraded, its effectiveness will be significantly weakened or it will disappear, and the soil nitrification rate will quickly recover. Compounds as inhibitors should be able to maintain a certain degree of activity and stability over a sufficient period of time. Easily degradable compounds and the compounds and their degradation products which are highly volatile are not suitable for nitrification inhibitors.
(4) Economy. Nitrification inhibitors are commonly used as fertilizer additives. So, it has to be cheap and easy to obtain, and efficient which ensures a low dosage when applied. In this way, the application cost can be reduced and the risk of secondary pollution to the environment can be minimized.
(5) Environmentality. A healthy environment is important for maintaining the integrity of terrestrial ecosystems and buffer against adverse conditions such as drought, climate change, pollution, pests and diseases. The application of any agrochemical in agricultural production should be based on the premise that it does no harm to the environment, including soil, atmosphere and water to ensure the sustainable development of agricultural production.